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Secondary 4 history revision

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Table of contents

  1. REVISION OF CHAPTER 1: THE FORMATION OF THE CANADIAN FEDERATION (1840-1896)
  2. REVISION OF CHAPTER 2: NATIONALISM AND CANADIAN AUTONOMY (1896-1945)
  3. REVISED CHAPTER 3: QUEBEC MODERNIZATION AND THE QUIET REVOLUTION (1945-1980)
  4. REVISED CHAPTER 4: CONTEMPORARY QUEBEC (1980-…)
  5. LINKS USED TO PREPARE THIS DOCUMENT

 

This page will give you access to essential knowledge and is in line with the Québec Education Program (PFEQ).

 

REVISON OF CHAPTER 1: THE FORMATION OF THE CANADIAN FEDERATION (1840-1896)

 

Some important dates :

  • 1840: Act of Union
  • 1848: Responsible government obtained
  • 1854-1866: Reciprocity Treaty
  • 1867: BNA Act (British North America Act)
  • 1869: First Métis Uprising
  • 1876: Indian Act passed
  • 1879: National policy established
  • 1885: Second Métis uprising and hanging of Louis-Riel
  • 1896: Election of Wilfrid Laurier

Some important concepts :

 

  • Union Act: Following the Patriote rebellions, London created the Union Act, unifying Upper and Lower Canada. The aim was to unite the two Canadas within a single House of Assembly, and to assimilate French Canadians.

 

  • Responsible government: Ministerial responsibility.

 

  • Abolition of preferential tariffs: London adopts free trade, Canada’s exports to the metropolis decline. 
  • Reciprocity Treaty: Abolition of tariffs between Canada and the United States. 
  • The Great Coalition: certain members of Parliament wish to unite the British colonies of Canada. They meet in Charlottetown and agree on a federal union. The pioneers were John A. Macdonald, George Brown and George-Étienne Cartier. 
  • BNA Act: The Canadian federation is born. Powers are shared between the federal and provincial governments (Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia). Canada becomes a dominion.

 

  • Dominion: A state that is independent in its domestic policy, but dependent on London for its foreign policy. 
  • First industrial phase: Industrial development, thanks to coal and the mechanization of work, created a new social class, the workers. They will be crammed into poor neighborhoods where hygiene and working conditions are deplorable. 
  • Indian Act: Legislation introduced by the federal government to assimilate Aboriginals. 
  • Métis uprising: the federal government wanted to colonize Western Canada, but the Métis didn’t like it, seeing it as a threat to their way of life. Two uprisings took place, the first in 1869, which led to the creation of Manitoba, and the second in 1885, which led to the hanging of Louis Riel. 
  • Ultramontanism: A movement opposed to the separation of church and state.

 

  • Anticlericalism: Movement in favor of the separation of church and state. 

     

  • Survivalist nationalism: an ideology very present in Quebec, this movement asserts that for French Canadians to keep the French language, they must turn to the Catholic Church and country life. 

     

  • Women’s role: mostly related to the family (housekeeping and childcare). However, they were also very involved in charitable and religious activities.

REVISON OF CHAPTER 2: NATIONALISM AND CANADIAN AUTONOMY (1896-1945)

Some important dates :

  • 1896: Election of Wilfrid Laurier
  • 1899-1902: Boer War
  • 1914-1918: First World War
  • 1918: Women granted the right to vote in federal elections
  • 1920-1929: Roaring Twenties
  • 1929-1939: Great Depression
  • 1939-1945: Second World War
  • 1940: Women granted the right to vote in Quebec provincial elections

 

Some important concepts :

 

  • Nationalism: adherents of this political movement demanded greater autonomy from Great Britain. They are mainly French-Canadian. 

     

  • Imperialism: Adherents to this political movement are deeply attached to Great Britain. Most are English-Canadians.: adherents of this political movement demanded greater autonomy from Great Britain. Most were French Canadians. 

     

  • Boer War: Confrontation between nationalists and imperialists. The nationalists don’t want to support Great Britain in the conflict, while the imperialists do. Wilfrid Laurier, wishing to compromise, agrees to send soldiers, but only volunteers. 

     

  • Second industrial phase: Strong economic growth in the late 19th and early 20th centuries ushered in the second industrial phase. Hydroelectricity became the main source of energy.
  • Migration: Western development encourages thousands of immigrants to come to Canada. Wilfrid Laurier relies on immigration to increase the workforce. However, immigration policies were highly restrictive for certain ethnic groups. 

     

  • Clerical-nationalism: A movement of thought based on the ideology of survival. Promoted by Lionel Groulx. 

     

  • World War I: Canada participates alongside the Triple Entente. The imperialists are in favor of Canada’s participation, the nationalists are not. For the war effort, Canada puts forward the volunteer Expeditionary Force, victory bonds and factories contribute to the war effort. In 1917, the government imposed conscription, which rekindled tensions between nationalists and imperialists.

 

  • Trade union movement: Expanded in the early 20th century, the main pressure tactic was the strike, the most famous being the Winnipeg strike of 1919. 

     

  • Roaring Twenties: A period of great economic and cultural growth. 

     

  • Great Depression: A period of great economic crisis. Despite some measures such as direct relief and soup kitchens, it wasn’t until the Second World War that the crisis came to an end. 

     

  • Statute of Westminster: Great Britain grants Canada the right to manage its foreign policy.

 

  • World War II: Canada participates alongside the Allies. Once again, the imperialists favor Canada’s participation, the nationalists do not. The government imposes conscription in 1940, once again rekindling tensions between nationalists and imperialists. The government also passed the War Measures Act, and the economy was once again geared to the war effort. 

     

  • Women’s struggles: during the First and Second World Wars, women contributed to the war effort by working in factories in place of men who had gone to war. They demanded greater autonomy, despite opposition from the clergy. 

     

  • Aboriginals: The government pursues its policy of assimilation, notably with the creation of residential schools.

 

 

REVISION OF CHAPTER 3: MODERNIZING QUEBEC AND THE QUIET REVOLUTION (1945-1980)

 

Some important dates :

 

  • 1945: End of the Second World War
  • 1944-1959: Duplessis era
  • 1945-1960: Baby boom
  • 1960-1966: Quiet Revolution
  • 1967: World’s Fair
  • 1970: October Crisis
  • 1972: Common Front
  • 1973: Oil crisis
  • 1976: Election of René Lévesque and Olympic Games
  • 1980: First referendum

 

Some important concepts :

 

  • Balance of power in the West: The USA and the USSR engage in an ideological confrontation between capitalism and communism. The Cold War begins. 

     

  • Clericalism: Union Nationale favors Church involvement in society. During the Duplessis era, the Church managed social services and had the power of censorship. 

     

  • Baby-Boom: Period after the Second World War marked by a large increase in births. 

     

  • Immigration to Canada: Following a major slowdown in the 1930s due to the economic crisis, immigration picked up strongly after the war.

 

  • Consumer society: post-war economic growth increased purchasing power and access to credit. American culture strongly influences Quebec culture. 

     

  • Duplessis era: Duplessis favors greater provincial autonomy. He relied on rural electrification to modernize agriculture, and favored economic liberalism. 

     

  • Unionism: Duplessis was opposed to the union movement, and during strikes (the Asbestos strike being the best example), the provincial police intervened to put an end to them. 

     

  • Protest: The conservatism of the Duplessis government led to a protest movement among artists and intellectuals. Le Refus Global, published in 1948, strongly criticizes the power of the Church in Quebec society. 
  • Quiet Revolution: A period marked by Jean Lesage’s Liberal Party. Quebec entered the modern era with the adoption of the welfare state, and the government took control of education and the healthcare system. 

     

  • Neo-nationalism: A nationalist movement whose adherents want Quebec to become an independent country. This desire for independence led to the creation of the Parti Québécois. 

     

  • October Crisis: The FLQ (Front libération du Québec) uses violence to win Quebec independence. 

     

  • First referendum: The first referendum is held in 1980, with the NO side winning 59% of the vote and the YES side 41%. 

 

REVISION OF CHAPTER 4: CONTEMPORARY QUEBEC (1980-…)

 

Some important dates :

 

  • 1980: First referendum
  • 1982: Repatriation of the Constitution
  • 1990: Meech Lake failure
  • 1990: Oka crisis
  • 1992: Charlottetown failure
  • 1994: NAFTA
  • 1995: Second referendum
  • 2001: September 11 attack

 

Some important concepts :

 

  • Repatriation of the Constitution: The government repatriates the Constitution, and all the provinces sign it except Quebec, which was absent from the negotiations. 

     

  • Meech Lake and Charlottetown fail: Two attempts to repatriate Quebec into the Constitution, but each time, the provinces oppose Quebec’s demands. As a result, the negotiations failed. 

     

  • NAFTA: Allows free movement of most goods between Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. 

     

  • 1995 referendum: Second referendum for Quebec sovereignty. The NO side wins by 51%. YES wins 49%.

 

  • Neoliberalism: due to the growing budget deficit caused by the welfare state, the government makes budget cuts. 

     

  • Aboriginal rights: Tensions arise between the government and Aboriginal people (Oka crisis). The government commits to reconciliation and gives greater autonomy to Aboriginals. 

     

  • Quebec population: After the baby-boom, the birth rate drops sharply, and Quebec turns to immigration to make up for the lack of manpower. 

     

  • Gender equality: The government implements a law to oblige companies to correct wage gaps between men and women. 

     

  • Environment: Society begins to understand the issue of climate change, and the government ratifies agreements to combat it.

 

Links used to write this document :

https://www.alloprof.qc.ca/fr/eleves/bv/histoire/repertoire-de-revision-histoire-du-quebec-et-du-canada-secondaire-4-h1184

http://www.histoireausecondaire.com/p/blog-page.html

https://www.recitus.qc.ca/ressources/secondaire

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/fr

http://www.learnquebec.ca/history

 

 

Essential skills for high school:

French in high school :

 

High school mathematics :

 

Secondary 4 History

 

English as a second language in secondary schools :

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